Despite a resurgence of research on negative ties in social networks, a comprehensive understanding of negative and positive has yet to be provided. Incorporating evidence from prior 163 independent samples we examine whether the initiation of positive and negative relationships (i.e., out-degree) or the reception of positive and negative relationships (i.e., in-degree) is more impactful to the focal employee’s effectiveness. Furthermore, to address the negative asymmetry hypothesis in social networks, we compare the relative importance of positive versus negative work relationships while holding the directionality constant. This meta-analytic review makes five contributions to theory on negative and positive social networks by (a) demonstrating the undermining impact of negative ties on performance and job attitudes; (b) providing information on the negative asymmetry hypothesis within social networks to reveal that negative ties occur less frequently than positive ties and that any asymmetry effects depend on the relative number of negative ties to positive ties in the context; (d) distinguishing between haters (senders of negative ties) and jerks (receivers of negative ties) to illustrate that haters have worse job attitudes than jerks, but the two do not differ on performance; and (e) providing positive and negative affect as antecedents to negative ties. Implications of these findings along with study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
The full video of Prasad’s presentation can be found here.